Historical Origin And Design Inspiration
The Grand Palais des Champs-Elys?es, commonly known as the Grand Palais (English: Great Palace), is a large historic site, exhibition hall and museum complex located at the Champs-?lys?es in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France. Construction of the Grand Palais began in 1897 following the demolition of the Palais de l’Industrie (Palace of the Industry) as part of the preparation works for the Universal Exposition of 1900, which also included the creation of the adjacent Petit Palais and Pont Alexandre III.
The structure was built in the style of Beaux-Arts architecture as taught by the ?cole des Beaux-Arts of Paris. The building reflects the movement’s taste for ornate decoration through its stone facades, the formality of its floor planning and the use of techniques that were innovative at the time, such as its glass vault, its structure made of iron and light steel framing, and its use of reinforced concrete.
One of its pediments calls it a ?monument dedicated by the Republic to the glory of French art?, reflecting its original purpose, that of housing the great artistic events of the city of Paris. The competition to choose the architect was fierce and controversial, and ultimately resulted in the contract being awarded to a group of four architects, Henri Deglane, Albert Louvet, Albert Thomas and Charles Girault, each with a separate area of responsibility.
The main space, almost 240 metres long, was constructed with an iron, steel and glass barrel-vaulted roof, making it the last of the large transparent structures inspired by London?s Crystal Palace that were necessary for large gatherings of people before the age of electricity. The main space was originally connected to the other parts of the palace along an east-west axis by a grand staircase in a style combining Classical and Art Nouveau, but the interior layout has since been somewhat modified.
The exterior of this massive palace combines an imposing Classical stone fa?ade with a riot of Art Nouveau ironwork, and a number of allegorical statue groups including work by sculptors Paul Gasq, Camille Lef?vre, Alfred Boucher, Alphonse-Am?d?e Cordonnier and Raoul Verlet. A monumental bronze quadriga by Georges R?cipon tops each wing of the main fa?ade. The one on the Champs-?lys?es side depicts Immortality prevailing over Time, the one on the Seine side Harmony triumphing over Discord.
The grand inauguration took place May 1, 1900, and from the very beginning the palace was the site of different kinds of shows in addition to the intended art exhibitions. These included a riding competition that took place annually from 1901 to 1957, but were mainly dedicated to innovation and modernity: the automobile, aviation, household appliances, and so on. The golden age of the art exhibitions as such lasted for some thirty years, while the last took place in 1947. The first major Matisse retrospective after his death was held at the Grand Palais from April 22, 1970 to September 21, 1970 and was an incredible success.
The structure itself, however, had problems that started even before it was completed, mainly as a result of subsidence caused by a drop in the water table. The builders attempted to compensate for this subsidence, and for a tendency of the ground to shift, by sinking supporting posts down to firmer soil, since construction could not be delayed. These measures were, however, only partially successful.
Further damage occurred once the building was in use. Excessive force applied to structural members during the installation of certain exhibitions such as the Exposition Internationale de la Locomotion A?rienne caused damage, as did acid runoff from the horse shows.
Additional problems due to the construction of the building itself revealed themselves over the course of time. Differential rates of expansion and contraction between cast iron and steel members, for example, allowed for water to enter, leading to corrosion and further weakening. When finally one of the glass ceiling panels fell in 1993, the main space had to be closed for restoration work, and was not fully reopened to the public until 2007.
Today A little known fact is that the Grand Palais has a major police station in the basement which helps protect the exhibits on show in the Galeries nationales du Grand Palais, and particularly the picture exhibition “Salons” as the Salon de la Soci?t? Nationale des Beaux Arts, Salon d’Automne and Salon Comparaisons. The building’s west wing also contains a science museum, the Palais de la D?couverte.
A blacksmith is a person who creates objects from iron or steel by forging the metal; i.e., by using tools to hammer, bend, cut, and otherwise shape it in its non-liquid form. Usually the metal is heated until it glows red or orange as part of the forging process. Blacksmiths produce things like wrought iron gates, grills, railings, light fixtures, furniture, sculpture, tools, agricultural implements, decorative and religious items, cooking utensils, horse shoes and weapons.
A blacksmith’s striker is an assistant (frequently an apprentice), whose job it is to swing a large sledge hammer in heavy forging operations, as directed by the blacksmith. In practice, the blacksmith will hold the hot iron at the anvil (with tongs) in one hand, and indicate where the iron is to be struck by tapping it with a small hammer held in the other hand: the striker then delivers a heavy blow with the sledge hammer where indicated.
When iron ore is smelted into usable metal, a certain amount of carbon is usually alloyed with the iron, (charcoal is almost pure carbon). The amount of carbon has extreme effects on the properties of the metal. If the carbon content is over 2%, the metal is called cast iron. Cast iron is so called because it has a relatively low melting point and is easily cast. It is quite brittle however, and therefore not used for blacksmithing. If the carbon content is between 0.25% and 2%, the resulting metal is tool steel, which can be heat treated as discussed above. When the carbon content is below 0.25%, the metal is either “wrought iron” or “mild steel.” The terms are never interchangeable. In pre-industrial times, the material of choice for blacksmiths was wrought iron. This iron had a very low carbon content, and also included up to 5% of glassy slag. This slag content made the iron very tough, gave it considerable resistance to rusting, and allowed it to be more easily “forge welded,” a process in which the blacksmith permanently joins two pieces of iron, or a piece of iron and a piece of steel, by heating them nearly to a white heat and hammering them together.
Hephaestus (Latin: Vulcan) was the blacksmith of the gods in Greek and Roman mythology. A supremely skilled artisan whose forge was a volcano, he constructed most of the weapons of the gods, and was himself the god of fire and metalworking.
Most Designs Used Today Were Conceived Hundreds Of Years Ago By Some Of The Worlds Most Famous Architects And Designers Working For The Aristocracies And The Well To Do Of Their Period. </div id=”red12″>Many of these architects and designers are as well known as Leonardo da Vinci (renaissance architecture) or Michelangelo,s (baroque architecture) as well as more recently William Morris, John Ruskin (founders of the Arts and Crafts furniture movement in circa 1800 England) Gustave Stickley (founder of the American Arts and Crafts movement in America circa 1900.) Frank Loyd Wright, Charles and Henry Greene to name a few.
Every Successful Creative Enterprise Is Always Built On A Foundation That Was Laid Down By Its Predecessors.</div id=”red12″> All creative people are dependent upon the groundwork laid down by those who came before them. H. J. Nick, artist and direct descendant of the Marbella brothers, and Scottsdale Art Factory have built on these foundations and have raised the bar of quality even higher. Thus setting a new standard and offering the finest one of a kind handmade furnishings found anywhere in the world in the 21st century.
Today Our Master Craftsman Build All Of Our Products Using The Identical Methods And Materials Of The Historical Period Of Each Furnishings Design Conception.</div id=”red14″>
All 21st Century Designs Are Also Built By Our Master Craftsman Using These Classic Traditional Methods.</div id=”red14″>
Whether We Build Products For Your Modern Dream Home Or Ancient Castle </div id=”red14″>every element Is always built to future collectable antiquity investment quality standards and will stand the test of time. Destined to become a part of your families appreciating financial net worth as well as a proud to own legacy heirloom.
We Are A “One Stop Shop”.</div id=”red14″> Many of our clients commission furniture For every room, doors, gates, built-in cabinets, lighting and hardware for their entire project. For Example: We are capable of starting with your entrance door design style or personalized carving coat of arms, family crest or business logo and bring this design in a tastefully elegant way in to you interior and exterior lighting fixtures, entrance doors, Interior doors, cabinets, structural elements, entrance gates or furnishings for every room. Making your home a unique piece of your families tradition and legacy.
Many of the worlds finest builders, architects, interior designers, as well business and home owners choose Scottsdale Art Factory. Due to our large flexible American work force and our ability to manufacture coinciding with construction deadlines.</div id=”red14″> Note: We do not import or out source allowing us total control of our supreme quality as well as your production requirements.
Product Information As Shown: Hand Forge Solid Iron
We Can Hand Forge Any Design For Cabinets, Entrance Doors, Commercial Doors Or Barn Doors Etc.
As Shown Features: Door Pull Order Any Size w/back plate or with out. Custom, hand forged iron door pull – Hand Forged With a hammer Hot forge And master Blacksmith texture continues on to backplate with dead bolt surround – Hand applied Iron Oxides To Advance The natural patinas oil rubbed or sealed .
Door Pull Structure hand forged, hammer struck to shape using Heavy gage iron boiler plate and solid steel square and round bar and rod. Back plate is pre drilled to mount to your solid wood door. Back helps keep your dead bolt lock secure from both sides
Patina Finish As Shown: Various Colors Of Hand Applied Iron Oxide Patinas.
Our processes includes five to ten coats of hand rubbed furniture quality clear water based non-toxic lacquers or oil rubs. It is applied, cured, rubbed and re-applied over all patina surfaces depending upon whether you order as limited edition or original works.
Every surface of this furnishing is finely finished including the undersides and hidden areas.
Each Item Is Finished To Be Virtually Maintenance Free To Age With Grace. All steel parts are hand patina finished the old fashioned way by iron oxide hand applied with high temperature heat. We never powder coat or faux paint our steel, it has been proven paint and powder coating methods do not hold up over time. You may choose from many natural iron oxide colors. The natural color of most of our finishes are water based and earth friendly. You may order any single color or texture finish at no extra charge.
Your Choice Of Artistic Hand Forged Door Pulls Is Unlimited
When We Say Iron – We Mean Solid And Hand Forged.
Coal Fired, Hammered By Master Blacksmiths The Old Fashioned Way.”
At Scottsdale Art Factory, we take pride in our traditional, superior quality workmanship and craft our products from only the finest steel. Our master blacksmiths have been classically trained, and utilize old world techniques such as coal firing, anvil hammering and hand forging to create the finest handcrafted lighting, hardware and furnishings available anywhere. No drop forged or casted copies.
more Important details about the kind of hand forged metal work you can expect when you order from Scottsdale Art Factory.
All Door / Gate Pulls, Handles Are Sized To Fit Your Particular Door / Gate.
We Guarantee Each Item “Forever” ” No Questions Asked, backed by over nine decades of fine craftsmanship.
Scottsdale Art Factory carries on the American Arts And Crafts Movement of the 21st century, in the same way William Morris and John Ruskin (founders of the Arts and Crafts furniture movement in circa 1800 England) inspired Gustave Stickley (founder of the American Arts and Crafts movement) in America circa 1900. Frank Loyd Wright, Charles and Henry Greene (inspired architects of the ultimate cottages such as the Gamble House in Pasadena California) are credited with raising quality standard to its highest level in their day. All of these great master craftsman also inspired the Marbella Brothers in the early 20th Century (founders of SAF circa 1913).
Every creative enterprise is always built on a foundation that was laid down by its predecessors. Creative people are also dependent on the groundwork laid down by those who came before them. H. J. Nick, artist and direct descendant of the Marbella brothers, and Scottsdale Art Factory have built on these foundations and have raised the bar of quality even higher. Thus setting a new standard and offering the finest one of a kind handmade furnishings found anywhere in the world in the 21st century.
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More about the history of Scottsdale Art Factory and the American furniture movement of the 21st century.